June 19, 2024

Researchers Assess the Power of T-Cell Immune Response to COVID-19 BA.1 and BA.2 Omicron Variants

T-CoV, a bioinformatics algorithm, demonstrated that the Omicron variation prevented none of the HLA molecule versions.

To verify this presumption, a team of scientists from the HSE Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology and the RAS Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry (Stepan Nersisyan, Anton Zhiyanov, Alexey Galatenko, Maxim Shkurnikov, Maria Zakharova, Irina Ishina, Inna Kurbatskaia, Azad Mamedov, Alexander Gabibov, and Alexander Tonevitsky) studied the Omicron variation for anomalies that help it prevent the T-cell immune action.
The advancement of T-cell response begins with the recognition of virus peptides (brief pieces of proteins) with the molecules of the human major histocompatibility complex (HLA). The more peptides that are acknowledged, the faster and more efficient T-cell immunity is. Infection mutations can change such peptides, which is why they can stop being recognized by HLA molecules, and the T-cell action will be less reliable.
T-CoV, a bioinformatics algorithm, demonstrated that the Omicron version prevented none of the HLA particle variants. However it discovered several HLA particle variations that began to become less reliable at acknowledging the Omicrons S-protein. An outstanding discovery was the HLA-DRB1 * 03:01 version of the molecule. The most important peptide of the infection managed to prevent it. Interestingly, both types of Omicron, BA.1 and bachelors degree.2 (also understood as Stealth), averted immune action acknowledgment, though this was accomplished by totally various anomalies.
The bioinformatics estimations were confirmed experimentally in a laboratory. The scientists proved that there is no binding between Omicron peptides and HLA-DRB1 * 03:01 particle, which was revealed in vitro.
The scientists emphasize that the initial peptide from the Wuhan fundamental version, along with Delta peptide, are recognized effectively by this molecule.
The authors stress that the found HLA-DRB1 * 03:01 version is present in a big share of the worldwide population: for example, in 8.9% of Europeans.
The population variety of HLA molecules, as well as the specificity of their work do not let the virus avoid the T-cell immune reaction. But the virus has actually managed to hide its S-protein from one of the HLA molecules. Notably, many of COVID-19 vaccines (Sputnik V, Pfizer, Moderna, AstraZeneca and some others) carry specifically this infection protein. This suggests that people with the alternative HLA-DRB1 * 03:01 (who make up 9% of Europes population, for example) vaccinated by S-protein might suffer from a more severe course of the illness brought on by the Omicron version, stated Alexander Tonevitsky, Dean of the HSE Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology.
Recommendation: “Alterations in SARS-CoV-2 Omicron and Delta peptides discussion by HLA molecules” by Stepan Nersisyan, Anton Zhiyanov, Maria Zakharova, Irina Ishina, Inna Kurbatskaia, Azad Mamedov, Alexei Galatenko, Maxim Shkurnikov?, Alexander Gabibov and Alexander Tonevitsky, 27 April 2022, PeerJ.DOI: 10.7717/ peerj.13354.

Researchers have demonstrated the efficiency of T-cell immune action against the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2. In roughly 90% of vaccinated Europeans, T-cell resistance was as reliable against Omicron as with other COVID variants.
Researchers from HSE University and the RAS Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry have shown the effectiveness of T-cell immune reaction versus the Omicron version of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). In roughly 90% of vaccinated Europeans, T-cell immunity was as reliable against Omicron similar to other variants. The results of the research study were released today (April 27, 2022) in the journal PeerJ.
The Omicron variation of SARS-CoV-2 triggered a brand-new wave of the global COVID-19 pandemic. The brand-new anomalies assist the virus spread better and prevent antibodies, which is why those who have actually already had the disease or who have actually been immunized are getting contaminated more typically. At the very same time, current data shows that the severity of the disease in immunized patients is significantly lower than in people who had not previously contracted the virus.
Peptides of the Wuhan standard variant and the Delta version bind well with HLA-DRB1 * 03:01 (high orange column left wing), while Omicron BA.1 and bachelors degree.2 peptides are no longer recognized by this molecule. Credit: S.Nersisyan et al
. The researchers assume that this can be described by several factors. The Omicron variant is slower at contaminating the human cells; 2nd, there is a hypothesis that a lighter course of the disease is related to efficient action of T-cell immunity.

Researchers from HSE University and the RAS Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry have actually shown the effectiveness of T-cell immune action versus the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). In approximately 90% of immunized Europeans, T-cell immunity was as reliable versus Omicron as with other versions. Peptides of the Wuhan basic version and the Delta variation bind well with HLA-DRB1 * 03:01 (high orange column on the left), while Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 peptides are no longer acknowledged by this particle. The Omicron version is slower at contaminating the human cells; 2nd, there is a hypothesis that a lighter course of the disease is related to reliable action of T-cell immunity.