March 5, 2024

A Particle Physics Experiment May Have Directly Observed Dark Energy

Both DM and DE belong to the Lambda Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) model of cosmology, which posits that deep space is filled with cold, slow-moving particles (DM) that engage with regular matter by means of the force of gravity alone. The Lambda represents DE, which is speeding up the expansion of deep space. Since they are just determined by observing their impact on the large-scale structure of the Universe, standard thinking has it that neither force connects with typical matter by means of electromagnetism or the strong or weak nuclear force.
Nevertheless, some DM theories posit that there is some level of interaction with noticeable matter, which researchers are actively screening. In lieu of more test results, cosmologists and astrophysicists stay uncertain about how DE fits in with the physical laws that govern the Universe. Far, candidates include an adjustment of Einsteins General Relativity (GR), the presence of a brand-new field, or a Cosmological Constant (CC). As Dr. Visinelli informed Universe Today through e-mail:
” For this reason, dark energy is potentially even more mysterious than dark matter. Presuming dark energy is certainly a field, the quanta associated with it would be incredibly light and bring really little energy.
Their work is based upon brand-new research that looks beyond the basic LCDM design of cosmology to think about that DE communicates with light by affecting its residential or commercial properties (i.e., polarization, color, instructions). These interactions might be subject to screening systems that prevent regional experiments from finding them. In this design, it is predicted that dark energy quanta can be produced in the Sun.
The XENON1T detector, revealed from below. Credit: XENOX Collaboration
As Dr. Vagnozzi discussed, the possible connection in between screening and dark energy first concerned him as he was showering one day:
” I remember it was June 20 and I was pondering and having a shower about solar axions (not) describing XENON, and I recognized the apparent escape was screening, as it would close down production in denser stars. Screening is normally related to models of dark energy and/or modified gravity, and there was the click..
” I instantly Whatsapped Luca and we started dealing with this immediately (and called our other co-authors who are professionals on screened dark energy/modified gravity models).”.
For the sake of their study, the team led by Dr. Vagnozzi and Dr. Visinelli thought about the data launched by the XENON collaboration, a DM research study group made up of 135 detectives from 22 organizations around the world. At the heart of their experiment is a 3,500 kg (7,715 pounds) detector of ultra radio-pure liquid xenon housed within a 10 m (32.8 ft) water tank. Found at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, XENON is also the most sensitive Dark Matter (DM) experiment ever performed.
In 2020, the Collaboration released the outcomes of their experimental run (2016 to 2018), which showed an unexpected rate of electron recoil events. According to the cooperation, this did not make up a DM detection however might be explained by a small recurring quantity of tritium in the experiment, the presence of a new particle (such as the solar axion), or an unusual home in neutrinos.
The leading PMT range with all of the electric cable televisions. Credit: XENON Dark Matter Project.
For the sake of their study, nevertheless, the group led by Vagnozzi and Visinelli theorized that it might have been the very first direct detection of DE. Said Vagnozzi:.
” In our design, dark energy has peculiar homes: its mass term is related to the density of the environment, so that the denser materials would shield the effects of dark energy, while lighter environments such as the intergalactic space would allow a long-range of the dark energy.
” In this design called “chameleon,” quanta of dark energy are produced in the region of the Sun in which the electro-magnetic field is the greatest, the tachocline, which is the region in which the transport of the energy inside the Sun transitions from radiative to convective. The high energy density in electro-magnetic radiation in the region enables a strong coupling with the chameleon field and to its production.”.
If real, this would indicate that experiments worldwide that are currently geared towards Dark Matter research might likewise be committed to the hunt for Dark Energy. To this end, Dr. Vagnozzi and Dr. Visinelli hope that this study stimulates interest in the particle designs of DE and that the search for these elusive particles can be performed in parallel with the continuous search for DM. If nothing else, these experiments will test theories about DE that range beyond the LCDM design, assisting researchers to narrow the list of candidates. Said Dr. Visinelli:.
” Many other experiments created for Dark Matter can likewise carry details about these chameleons, and we hope that creating future setups for these searches will be envisioned. An independent test utilizing cosmological data crossed with the forecasts from the chameleon design would likewise be required. When it comes to us, we prepare to improve the calculations in our paper by using a solar design, study the production of chameleons in huge stars, and get in contact with experimentalists for updates.”.
Illustris simulation, revealing the circulation of dark matter in 350 million by 300,000 light-years. Galaxies are shown as high-density white dots (left) and regular, baryonic matter (right). Credit: Markus Haider/Illustris.
In a recent paper, Dr. Vagnozzi and Dr. Visinelli performed a research study to take a look at whether pure flexible scattering in between dark energy and baryonic (aka. normal) matter might leave a noticeable imprint in cosmological observations. They figured out that this was not likely, at least when used to observations that are sensitive to the direct development of the cosmic structure, such as the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and the clustering of the large-scale structure at the linear level.
Dr. Vagnozzi is likewise working with a Ph.D. student in Munich to extend this research study and predict the ramifications that DE interacting with normal matter would have. Particularly, they desire to take a look at the effect this would have on the non-linear clustering of the large-scale structure of deep space, along with for the structure of galaxies and galaxy clusters. Paired with large-scale studies, which will take advantage of next-generation telescopes in the coming astronomers, years and cosmologists could be on the edge of shining light on the “Dark Universe!”.
Initially published on Universe Today.
For more on this research study, read XENON1T Experiment May Have Detected Dark Energy.
Referral: “Direct detection of dark energy: The XENON1T excess and future potential customers” by Sunny Vagnozzi, Luca Visinelli, Philippe Brax, Anne-Christine Davis and Jeremy Sakstein, 15 September 2021, Physical Review D.DOI: 10.1103/ PhysRevD.104.063023.

The research was led by Dr. Sunny Vagnozzi, a scientist with the Kavli Institute for Cosmology (KICC) at the University of Cambridge, and Dr. Luca Visinelli, a Fellowship for Innovation (FELLINI) researcher (which is kept with assistance from the Marie Sklodowska-Curie Fellowship) at the National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) in Frascati, Italy. They were joined by researchers from the Institute de Physique Theórique (IPhT), the University of Cambridge, and the University of Hawaii.

” For this factor, dark energy is possibly even more mysterious than dark matter. Presuming dark energy is indeed a field, the quanta associated with it would be very light and carry very little energy. In this design, it is predicted that dark energy quanta can be produced in the Sun.
If real, this would suggest that experiments worldwide that are presently geared towards Dark Matter research could likewise be devoted to the hunt for Dark Energy. In a current paper, Dr. Vagnozzi and Dr. Visinelli conducted a research study to take a look at whether pure flexible scattering between dark energy and baryonic (aka.

About 25 years earlier, astrophysicists discovered something very fascinating about the Universe. The truth that it was in a state of growth had been known considering that the 1920s, thanks to the observation of Edwin Hubble. However thanks to the observations astronomers were making with the space observatory that bore his name (the Hubble Space Telescope), they started to observe how the rate of cosmic growth was getting quicker!
This has actually caused the theory that the Universe is filled with a mysterious and unnoticeable force, called Dark Energy (DE). Years after it was proposed, researchers are still trying to determine this evasive force that comprises about 70% of the energy budget plan of deep space. According to a current research study by a worldwide group of researchers, the XENON1T experiment may have already found this elusive force, opening brand-new possibilities for future DE research study.