Green fluorescent protein highlights neurons in the locus coeruleus of a mouse. When mice were startled by researchers, these regions in their brains were activated and launched norepinephrine to assist the animals focus and discover in order to help start helpful behaviors.Gabi DrummondSurprise! Whether all of a sudden challenged with a birthday cake, a snarling pet dog, or an emergency alert, brains in some cases have precious little time to take in the environments and assess the very best possible reactions. A paper published Wednesday in Nature discovers that, in mice, surprising stimuli trigger the locus coeruleus to launch norepinephrine (also called noradrenaline), aiding in the brains ability to focus and find out in the moment. Norepinephrine has actually long been understood for its role in the fight or flight response, and this research study reveals that its contributions to neuromodulation are more widespread throughout the brain than previously valued.