November 27, 2022

Scientists Identify How Two People Controlled HIV After Stopping Antiretroviral Therapy Treatment

The study included 2 adults with HIV who started ART quickly after getting the infection and continued with treatment for more than six years, effectively suppressing HIV. The researchers also found that the 2nd individual, who had a weaker CD8+ T cell action against HIV, had a very strong reducing the effects of antibody action throughout the follow-up period till the abrupt viral rebound. According to the researchers, this recommends that reducing the effects of antibodies may have played a considerable function in facilitating near-complete HIV suppression in this individual until he newly obtained a various strain of the virus.

The private investigators kept track of the timing and size of viral rebounds in each participant, that is, times when the amount of HIV in their blood became noticeable. One participant suppressed the infection with intermittent rebounds for almost 3.5 years, at which point he started taking suboptimal ART without telling the research study team. The other individual practically completely reduced HIV for nearly 4 years, at which point the virus rebounded drastically because he became contaminated with a various HIV strain, a phenomenon referred to as “superinfection.”.
In the first individual but not the 2nd, the scientists discovered high levels of HIV-specific immune cells called CD8+ T cells that can eliminate virus-infected cells, showing that various systems of control were at operate in each individual. The scientists also found that the second participant, who had a weaker CD8+ T cell action versus HIV, had an extremely strong neutralizing antibody action throughout the follow-up duration till the unexpected viral rebound. According to the researchers, this recommends that reducing the effects of antibodies might have played a substantial function in assisting in near-complete HIV suppression in this individual till he newly got a various strain of the infection.
The researchers stressed that to avoid the development of viral resistance and avoid potential misconception of scientific information in studies like this one, it is necessary to carry out regular antiretroviral drug testing of people with HIV who stop treatment for extended durations. In addition, the researchers identified HIV superinfection as a prospective cause of unexpected virologic advancement in individuals with HIV who stop treatment, especially when the breakthrough takes place after an extended period of virus suppression..
Referral: “Distinct mechanisms of long-lasting virologic control in 2 HIV-infected people after treatment disturbance of antiretroviral therapy” byJana Blazkova, Feng Gao, Manukumar Honnayakanahalli Marichannegowda, J. Shawn Justement, Victoria Shi, Emily J. Whitehead, Rachel F. Schneck, Erin D. Huiting, Kathleen Gittens, Mackenzie Cottrell, Erika Benko, Colin Kovacs, Justin Lack, Michael C. Sneller, Susan Moir, Anthony S. Fauci and Tae-Wook Chun, 28 October 2021, Nature Medicine.DOI: 10.1038/ s41591-021-01503-6.

This scanning electron micrograph reveals HIV particles (yellow) emerging from a contaminated T cell (blue). Credit: NIAID
Various systems suppressed the virus in everyone.
Research study led by scientists at the National Institutes of Health has identified two unique manner ins which individuals with HIV can control the virus for a prolonged period after stopping antiretroviral treatment (ART) under medical supervision. This info might inform efforts to establish brand-new tools to help people with HIV put the infection into remission without taking lifelong medication, which can have long-lasting side-effects..
The study, released on October 28, 2021, in the journal Nature Medicine, was led by Tae-Wook Chun, Ph.D., chief of the HIV Immunovirology Section in the Laboratory of Immunoregulation at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of NIH; and by Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., NIAID director and chief of the Laboratory of Immunoregulation.
The study involved 2 adults with HIV who started ART right after acquiring the infection and continued with treatment for more than six years, successfully suppressing HIV. The people then signed up with an HIV medical trial and stopped taking ART under medical guidance. The study group followed one of these individuals for four years and the other for more than five years, with study visits roughly every 2 to 3 weeks..

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