February 26, 2024

New Research Links Red Meat Consumption to a 22% Higher Risk of Heart Disease

In this community-based cohort of older U.S. ladies and males, greater consumptions of unprocessed red meat, overall meat (unprocessed red meat plus processed meat), and total animal source foods were prospectively connected with a greater incidence of ASCVD throughout a median follow-up of 12.5 years.
The favorable associations with ASCVD were partly moderated (8-11 percent of excess risk) by plasma levels of TMAO, gamma-butyrobetaine, and crotonobetaine.
The higher danger of ASCVD associated with meat consumption was also partly moderated by levels of blood sugar and insulin and, for processed meats, by systematic inflammation however not by high blood pressure or blood cholesterol levels.
Consumption of fish, poultry, and eggs were not significantly associated with ASCVD.

A current research study headed by scientists at the Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute and the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts University measures the danger of ASCVD connected with meat consumption and identifies underlying biologic paths that may explain this danger. The study of over 4,000 guys and ladies over the age of 65 in the United States found that higher meat consumption is related to an increased danger of ASCVD– 22 percent greater risk for every single 1.1 serving each day– and that increased levels of three metabolites created by gut bacteria from nutrients prevalent in meat describe roughly 10% of this increased risk. Red meat was connected with a greater threat and affiliations with gut bacterial metabolites, however, this was not found for poultry, eggs, or fish..
The research study, which was recently published in the journal Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, is the first to examine the connections between animal source foods and the threat of ASCVD occasions, and the mediation of this risk by gut microbiota-generated compounds as well as by standard ASCVD threat pathways such as blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, and blood sugar level.
The research study made use of years of data from the National Institutes of Healths (NIHs) Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), a long-term observational research study of danger elements for cardiovascular disease in Americans aged 65 and older. Several blood biomarkers were determined at baseline and once again during follow-up, including levels of the gut-microbiome generated trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and two of its essential intermediates, gamma-butyrobetaine, and crotonobetaine, originated from L-carnitine, abundant in red meat.
Highlights.

Is there a link between taking in more meat, particularly red and processed meat, and an increased risk of cardiovascular illness? Comprehending the effects of meat consumption is crucial for older grownups considering that they are most at danger for heart illness and may benefit from consuming protein to combat the wear and tear of muscle mass and strength that comes with aging.
A current study headed by scientists at the Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute and the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts University quantifies the risk of ASCVD associated with meat consumption and determines underlying biologic pathways that might describe this threat. The study of over 4,000 men and ladies over the age of 65 in the United States discovered that greater meat intake is associated with an increased risk of ASCVD– 22 percent greater risk for every 1.1 serving per day– and that increased levels of three metabolites created by gut bacteria from nutrients common in meat discuss roughly 10% of this increased danger. Findings were noteworthy due to the fact that there have actually been few research studies on TMAO and the threat of death in the basic population; previous research usually looked at clinical clients with underlying conditions such as diabetes, kidney illness, and heart illness.

These findings assist address long-standing concerns on systems linking meats to the threat of heart diseases,” said the papers co-first author Meng Wang, a post-doctoral fellow at the Friedman School. “The interactions between red meat, our gut microbiome, and the bioactive metabolites they generate appear to be a crucial path for threat, which produces a new target for possible interventions to minimize heart disease.”.
The 3,931 study subjects were followed for an average of 12.5 years, and their average age at standard was 73. The research study changed for recognized risk factors such as age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, cigarette smoking, exercise, other dietary habits, and many additional threat aspects.
” Interestingly, we identified 3 significant pathways that assist discuss the links in between red and processed meat and heart disease– microbiome-related metabolites like TMAO, blood sugar levels, and general inflammation– and each of these appeared more essential than paths related to blood cholesterol or high blood pressure,” said co-senior author, Dariush Mozaffarian, dean for policy at the Friedman School. “This suggests that, when selecting animal-source foods, its less important to concentrate on differences in total fat, saturated fat, or cholesterol, and more essential to much better comprehend the health effects of other elements in these foods, like L-carnitine and heme iron.”.
By leveraging comprehensive medical and dietary data amongst a large elderly neighborhood, the research study “links the gut microbial TMAO path to animal source foods and heightened atherosclerotic cardiovascular illness threats,” said co-senior author Stanley L. Hazen, area head of preventive cardiology and rehabilitation at Cleveland Clinic. “The study also argues for dietary efforts as a way of minimizing that danger, considering that dietary interventions can significantly lower TMAO.”.
More study is needed to identify if the findings are generalizable across ages and citizenships. The authors also noted that while microbiome biomarkers were straight measured in the blood, research study individuals dietary habits were self-reported, and research study findings are observational and can not show cause-and-effect.
Ahmed Hasan, a medical officer and program director in the Atherothrombosis & & Coronary Artery Disease Branch at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, part of the NIH, concurs. “While more research studies are needed, the present reports supply a prospective new target for dealing with or avoiding heart illness in a subgroup of individuals who take in excessive quantities of red meat,” said Hasan, who was not a part of the research study.
In the meantime, consumers are motivated to follow existing recommendations for a heart-healthy way of life, consisting of embracing a healthy diet that is rich in vegetables, fruits, entire grains, and other heart-healthy foods, NHLBIs Hasan stated. Other heart-healthy lifestyle modifications also include intending for a healthy weight, managing tension, managing blood pressure, getting more workout, getting appropriate sleep, and stopping cigarette smoking, he included.
Greater Levels of TMAO, Related Metabolites Linked to Higher Risk of Death.
The ATVB research study is part of an ongoing cooperation among researchers at the Friedman School and Cleveland Clinic to reveal the function that the gut microbiome plays in human health, particularly cardiovascular health. In a paper in JAMA Network Open in May, numerous of the exact same researchers reported that TMAO and related metabolites in older grownups are positively connected with a greater danger of death whether deaths were connected to cardiovascular disease or another disease. Participants with the highest levels of plasma TMAO and its biomarkers had a 20 to 30 percent greater danger of death than those with the lowest levels.
Findings were significant because there have actually been couple of research studies on TMAO and the danger of death in the basic population; previous research usually looked at clinical patients with underlying conditions such as diabetes, kidney illness, and heart illness. “Now that we understand more about the seriousness of risks associated with TMAO, we can check out efficient approaches to alter these levels in the body,” stated the papers co-first author, Amanda Fretts of the University of Washington Department of Epidemiology.
Recommendations: “Dietary Meat, Trimethylamine N-Oxide-Related Metabolites, and Incident Cardiovascular Disease Among Older Adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study” by Meng Wang, Zeneng Wang, Yujin Lee, Heidi T.M. Lai, Marcia C. de Oliveira Otto, Rozenn N. Lemaitre, Amanda Fretts, Nona Sotoodehnia, Matthew Budoff, Joseph A. DiDonato, Barbara McKnight, W.H. Wilson Tang, Bruce M. Psaty, David S. Siscovick, Stanley L. Hazen and Dariush Mozaffarian, 1 August 2022, Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology.DOI: 10.1161/ ATVBAHA.121.316533.
” Association of Trimethylamine N-Oxide and Metabolites With Mortality in Older Adults” by Amanda M. Fretts, Ph.D., MPH, Stanley L. Hazen, MD, Ph.D., Paul Jensen, Ph.D., MPH, Matthew Budoff, MD, Colleen M. Sitlani, Ph.D., Meng Wang, Ph.D., Marcia C. de Oliveira Otto, Ph.D., Joseph A. DiDonato, Ph.D., Yujin Lee, Ph.D., Bruce M. Psaty, MD, Ph.D., David S. Siscovick, MD, MPH, Nona Sotoodehnia, MD, MPH, W. H. Wilson Tang, MD, Heidi Lai, Ph.D., Rozenn N. Lemaitre, Ph.D., MPH and Dariush Mozaffarian, MD, Ph.D., 20 May 2022, JAMA Network Open.DOI: 10.1001/ jamanetworkopen.2022.13242.
The research study was moneyed by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute..
Both the ATVB and JAMA Network Open research studies support the significance of the microbiome and particular metabolites to human health, with the ATVB paper specifically linking the gut microbiome with meat consumption, and influence on heart health.

The research study likewise found that taking in fish, poultry, and eggs was not related to cardiovascular disease.
Blood sugar, basic inflammation, and microbiome-related metabolites like TMAO appear to be more crucial in controling heart problem risk than high blood pressure or cholesterol levels.
Is there a link in between consuming more meat, especially red and processed meat, and an increased danger of cardiovascular disease? Understanding the effects of meat intake is essential for older grownups because they are most at risk for heart illness and may benefit from consuming protein to neutralize the degeneration of muscle mass and strength that comes with aging.
The link between heart illness and hydrogenated fat, dietary cholesterol, salt, nitrites, and even high-temperature cooking has actually been studied by researchers throughout the years, however the proof for a lot of these mechanisms has not been strong. Recent data points to particular metabolites produced by our gut germs when we consume meat as the possible underlying perpetrators..